Deadly or very dangerous mushrooms"

A few deadly or highly poisonous European mushrooms to know

click here to access the list of all poisonous mushrooms currently available in this database
Amanita phalloides: always deadly
("Death Cap")
cap  olive green, white
gills white, crowded
stem with a ring and a volva
flesh whitish, with a faint odour
habitat fairly common under broad-leaved trees (mostly with oak and beech) and sometimes with conifers, in the woods
toxicity always deadly (Death cap poisoning)

Amanita verna : always deadly
("Spring Amanita")
cap  white
gills white, crowded
stem with a ring and a volva
flesh whitish, with a faint odour
habitat uncommon, in spring (in southern climates) but mostly in autumn; more often under broad-leaved trees, in the woods, on calcareous soils
toxicity always deadly (Death cap poisoning)
Amanita virosa: always deadly
("Destroying Angel")
cap  white
gills white, crowded
stem shaggy, with a ruptured ring and a volva
flesh whitish, with a faint odour of radish or sickly sweet in mature specimens
habitat uncommon, in summer or autumn, with broad-leaved or coniferous trees, in the woods, on acid soils
toxicity always deadly (Death cap poisoning)
Amanita pantherina : highly poisonous
("Panther Cap")
cap  brown, covered with concentrical pure white warts
gills white, crowded
stem with a ring and a circumcised volva ending up in a distinct gutter, with one or two belt-like helical rings above it
flesh whitish, odour not distinctive
habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods, clearings, occasional but locally frequent in some places
toxicity highly poisonous, possibly deadly (Panther Cap poisoning)
Galerina marginata: deadly
("Marginate Galera")
cap  small (4-8 cm), tawny brown, highly hygrophanous
gills reddish brown, crowded
stem 4-8 cm long, slender, with a not very visible membranous ring
flesh brown, mealy odour and taste
habitat in groups of a few individuals, on wood debris (mostly on coniferous wood)
toxicity  deadly (Death cap poisoning)

The group of Lepiota helveola (Lepiota brunneoincarnata in the picture above, Lepiota josserandii etc.) :  deadly
click here to access the other deadly Lepiotas
cap  small (under 10cm wide), pinkish brown, covered with fine scales
gills white, not very crowded, with pinkish shades
stem small (5 to 8cm max), with zebra-like pinkish-brown markings, and with a short-lived ring
flesh turning slightly pink, with a fruity odour
habitat in small troops in open broad-leaved woodlands, sometimes along forest edges, in summer or autumn. Quite rare
toxicity  deadly (Death cap poisoning)

Cortinarius orellanus and relatives of the Dermocybe sub-genus: deadly
("Fool's Webcap" or "Annatto-coloured Cortinarius")
click here to access the other potentially deadly Cortinarius
cap  3-7cm wide, bright rusty brown, covered with fine silky scales, generally umbonate
gills distant, thick, bright tawny orange
stem yellow towards apex, tawny below
flesh with same colour as stem, odour of radish
habitat end of summer, autumn, under broad-leaved trees, uncommon. On silicous soils
toxicity  deadly (Fool's Webcap poisoning)
Paxillus involutus :  deadly
("Brown Rollrim")
cap  ochre yellow with inrolled margin
gills easily detached from cap like the tubes of boletes, ochraceous, stained, crowded
stem rather short, often crooked
flesh yellowish, soft
habitat very common throughout the year, as soon as the weather turns mild, in or out of deciduous woods (including gardens)
toxicity deadly raw or half-cooked  (Paxillus poisoning)

Gyromitra esculenta: deadly
("False Morel")
cap  red-brown, with irregular convoluted lobes ("brain" shaped)
fertile surface external
stem pale flesh-pink, short, furrowed, irregularly hollow
flesh whitish, pleasant taste, odourless
habitat spring, in coniferous forests (around stumps), on acid soils, uncommon (more often on high grounds).
toxicity  deadly eaten raw or too often (gyromitrin poisoning)
Clitocybe rivulosa :  highly poisonous
("Fool's Funnel")
click here to access other very poisonous white Clitocybes
cap  small (2 to 6 cm wide), whitish, stained with pinkish-grey, with inrolled and irregular margin
gills only slightly decurrent, creamy white or slightly pink
stem short (2 to 3 cm tall), with same colour as cap
flesh pale, mealy odour
habitat end of summer, autumn, common in lawns or grassy areas
toxicity highly poisonous (muscarine poisoning)

Tricholoma pardinum : highly poisonous
("Striped Tricholoma")
cap  very large (up to 25cm wide), often umbonate, with inrolled margin, with greyish cap surface covered with brown scales
gills thick, decurrent through a tooth, wide, creamy white with greenish-grey shades
stem massive, full, swollen towards base, almost smooth, pale
flesh whitish with mealy odour
habitat summer and autumn, mostly in mountainous regions, on calcareous grounds, with beech and fir
toxicity very poisonous (severe gastrointestinal poisoning)
Entoloma sinuatum: highly poisonous
("Livid Pinkgill" or "False Miller")
cap  grey-beige, cream to brown, sturdy and fleshy, with an inrolled margin at first, irregular, covered with fine brown radiating fibrils
gills broad, yellow then salmon pink
stem sturdy, swollen towards base, whitish
flesh thick, white, with a strong fresh meal odour
habitat in summer and autumn, in deciduous forests or along wood edges, on clayey-calcareous soils, often in troops
toxicity very poisonous  (severe gastrointestinal poisoning)

Inocybe patouillardii: deadly
("Red-staining Fibrecap")
cap  conical then flattened with a small umbo at the middle, straw-white to brown, turning red when touched
gills broad, distant, pale then brown, their edge remaining always white and flaky 
stem white, more or less equal, staind with vermilion
flesh white, thick, with a fruity odour
habitat in spring, summer, sometimes autumn, on calcareous soils, under broad-leaved trees or in parks, along paths
toxicity  deadly when consumed in large quantities > 500g (muscarine poisoning)
Omphalotus olearius  :  highly poisonous
("Jack O'Lantern")
 click here to access Omphalotus illudens, a very similar more northern species, also very poisonous
cap  quite large(6 to 12 cm wide), funnel-shaped, orange to brown, with an inrolled margin
gills decurrent, golden to orange, sometimes phosporescent
stem long, slim, wavy, tapering towards base 
flesh strong and unpleasant odour 
habitat summer to winter, in tufts on stumps or roots or close to the base of tree trunks; quite rare
toxicity highly poisonous (severe gastrointestinal poisoning)
click here to access the list of all poisonous mushrooms currently available in this database