The Amanita phalloides syndrome poisoningIncubation : long (from 8 to 36 hours). No signs of poisoning before that.
Lethal dose : about 1/2 g of fresh mushroom per kg of an individual. Half a cap is sufficient to kill a human being.
Toxic compounds involved : more than a dozen multi-cyclic peptides of complex structure with indole nucleus (phallotoxines, among which phalloidine, and amatoxines). Amatoxines alter the normal behaviour of RNA polymerase II enzymes in the liver, blocking the production of proteins and inducing unrecoverable damage to this organ. 90% of deadly poisonings are caused by these toxins.
Signs of intoxication :
- first signs of discomfort and respiratory unease, then digestive disorders (heavy diarrhea, abdominal pain), then, until the 4th day after ingestion, nausea then violent vomiting, extreme diarrhea, harsh abdominal pains, muscle cramps
- treacherous remission is observed about the 3rd day, although laboratory analysis would show severe liver damage
- next signs (5th-6th day) : gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by jaundice and hepatic encephalopathy (liver damage)
- then failure of other organs, among which kidneys, heart, nervous system and ultimately, death.
- The sooner the patient is taken to hospital and treated, the highest his chances of survival.
- Modern treatments (tritherapy based on silibinin, N-acetylcysteine, ceftazidime) are said to decrease the death rate down to 10%.
- Dr Bastien's Protocol : This protocol was proposed by Dr Bastien in the 1970s (and tested on himself several times). It proved to be successful for patients suffering from deadly amanitas' poisonings as long as administered soon enough before any liver damage.
Responsible species :
- Some amanitas : The Death Cap and its varieties, the Destroying Angel and its varieties, the Spring Amanita and its varieties.
- Some Galeras : The Marginate Galera, the Autumn Galera
- Some small Lepiotas : the Deadly Dapperling, Lilac-Brown Parasol, Brown Parasol Mushroom , Lepiota subincarnata, Lepiota pseudohelveola, etc.
page updated on 25/06/15